I’m a Muslim and I’m Not Scared of Trump’s America

Written By Ibrahim Rashid, an undergraduate pursuing his BA in International Relations at Boston University. Republished with permission.
I’m a Muslim and I’m not scared of Trump’s America.
While yes, Donald Trump has said and done things that have hurt many of us, he does not represent the America that I know and have come to love.
Although America is my passport country, I have spent my entire life living overseas in Nigeria, South Africa, England, and the UAE. So naturally, whenever someone asked the question, “Where are you from?” I always struggled to answer.
How do you explain to someone that, well, you’re South Asian looking because your parents are Pakistani but you can barely speak Urdu (but are fluent in Spanish) and are an American citizen but have never lived there and have South African and Emirati residency? Throughout my whole life, I always felt foreign and out of place wherever I lived.
Until I came to America for college.
While yes, my first year was a struggle (like any other kid’s), today, on November 10th, 2016, two days after the US election, I feel loved and welcome.
But that wasn’t always the case.
It’s been almost a year since the November 13th Paris Attacks when, in the aftermath, Donald Trump called for a ban on Muslim immigration and many Republican governors followed suit by pledging to deny entry to Syrian refugees (a gesture that many Muslims saw as Islamophobic.)
So for three days straight I stayed in bed crying. Every time I opened my phone, I was confronted with news about a mosque being ransacked or a women being harassed simply for wearing a hijab.
I feared for myself, my family, and my community. I stopped wearing my Salwar Kameez (traditional Pakistani clothes), I wore sun glasses to class to hide my tears, and I considered dropping out of Boston University barely a semester into my freshmen year. I felt that as a Muslim of Pakistani descent, I didn’t have a place here in America.
But today I’m still here, I’m not scared, and I have hope.

In one year, I’ve had professors comfort me in the hospital, invite me into their homes when I was sad, and pick me up when I fell.

In one year, I’ve made friends who have shown me their faith and house of worship, taught me how to play the guitar, and sang karaoke with me when I was down.

In one year, I’ve met strangers who have taken care of me when I was alone and in trouble in a new city, have cheered me on when I spoke about Islamophobia at the steps of the State House, and told me that they have faith in my ability to do good in this world.

For me, it has been the kindness of strangers that has shown me what this country is and can be.

I recently launched a photography project called My Muslim Friends where I interview strangers about their perspectives on Islam and experience in America in a HONY-esque fashion in hopes of building solidarity between Muslims and non-Muslims.

So on Monday, I took a day off from class to attend the Obama rally in New Hampshire and, armed with just a whiteboard, a marker, and an iPhone, I asked people, “What is great about America?”

Their response? Diversity, acceptance, and progress.

And I continue to see this message every day. This morning, the New York Times featured me in an article highlighting Black, Hispanic, and Muslim reactions to the election result. At the time of writing, more than 8,000 people have liked and shared the article in total and if you take a look at the comments, all you will see is compassion, love, and support.

This is the America that I know.

So while it is easy to feel isolated and unwanted, I refuse to give up on this country. There is still so much good here and we can’t just ignore it and shut ourselves off.

So today I can proudly say with confidence that I, as a first generation American, have been shown a special kind of love from this country and its people that doesn’t just go away because we have a new president.

And that is why I’m not scared.

If you are also interested in contributing to MuslimGuy.com, please email our Editor-in-Chief at alykhan@muslimguy.com

From the Editor-in-Chief: He Was a Refugee, Now He’s Canada’s New Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship

This past Tuesday, President Barack Obama delivered his farewell address stressing the threats to national unity to come during Donald Trump’s reign after he is sworn in

next week as America’s 45th President. While this is a very scary idea to most of us, especially as Muslims, on the other side of the border in Canada, a different kind of change is making headlines: Somali-born Muslim Ahmed Hussen, MP for York South-Weston, has been appointed the nation’s Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship.

A breakthrough for Muslim representation especially amidst the recent violent outbreaks toward Muslim males these last few months in the West, Hussen’s appointment will serve as an inspiration to Muslims – male and female – that anything is possible.

The result of hard work

Hussen’s humble story represents one of many who have struggled and came to Canada for better prospects. Originally a refugee from Somalia, Ahmed came to Canada at the age of 16 and graduated high school in Hamilton. He would eventually work in a gas station to pay his tuition at York University and later complete law school at the University of Ottawa, following which he would advocate for the impoverished in his community and even revitalize a housing project.

Regardless of individual positions on the Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau’s handle of the economy, one thing is for certain: His party is open to diversity and immigration. Hussen repeated this message shortly after the news of his appointment. “The story of Canada is the story of immigration, and I’m especially proud and humbled that the prime minister would task me with this important role”.

Despite challenges Muslims face with immigration policies in the United States, Canada has defied these trends, accepting early 40,000 Syrian refugees this past year alone. In 1972, Prime Minister Trudeau’s father, former Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau and his government began accepting Ugandan Asian refugees, many of whom were adherents to the Muslim faith. By the end of 1974, nearly 8,000 of them made Canada their home.

Hussen’s personal story, experience and knowledge of these matters will bring a new better-informed perspective to this position. Outside the House of Commons in Ottawa, Hussen said: “I am extremely proud of our country’s history as a place of asylum, a place that opens its doors and hearts to new immigrants and refugees, and I’m especially proud today to be the minister in charge of that file”. By the end of 2017, his ministry plans to admit over 300,000 new permanent residents to Canada.

This article is written by Alykhan. Alykhan is an African British-Indian & Iranian born and raised in Vancouver. He is a technology aficionado promoting innovation in mental health and neurodegenerative disease currently completing his undergraduate degree. He can be found on Twitter at @alykhans.

From the Perspective of a Former Muslim: I Voted For Hillary Clinton, Yet My Vote Was Counted As Donald Trump’s

Written By Faizaan Jaffer, a student at Western University studying Honors Economics, Politics, and Philosophy. Faizaan has been an Atheist for 5 years and is no longer Muslim. He has given us permission to share his thoughts on the unexpected election results.

DISCLAIMER: This is simply self-expression. I did not write this with the intention of insulting anyone’s political point of view. That being said, if this offends you…well to be honest I really don’t give a shit at this point. You can message me about it or unfriend me, up to you.

The most apt word I can use to describe the way I’ve felt as an American over the past 16 hours is: helpless. The past 16 hours have understandably been filled with a whirlwind of emotions; feelings of being worthless, hated, and unwanted by the people from my own home. Now these are not new feelings by any measure, as this was exactly the reason why my family moved to Canada 9 years ago, pre-Obama. Yet still, the past 16 hours have been spent spiraling downwards through a seemingly endless abyss; lying in bed yet being unable to sleep, hungry yet feeling too sick to eat, longing for comfort and companionship yet having forgotten how to speak.

Perhaps the scariest part, is that this is only Day 1.

Now that the election is over, we’re expected to be strong, swallow our pride, and embrace Trump as our president, because he is, after all, who “The People” wanted. Well fuck that and here’s why:

1. It is ok to feel sadness, anger, fear, or any range of emotions. It is ok to feel. Often times when we feel down, we’re told to be strong and move on, because it’s over. However, expressing our feelings is not a weakness, it’s one of our only universal strengths. For, many of us are mourning right now. We’re mourning in the loss of something we never truly had. We thought that the racist, misogynistic, xenophobic, prejudicial roots that this country was built on, were finally being eliminated. However, we were mistaken. They were were simply being hidden deeper into the fabric of our society. We are mourning the loss of the progress we thought had been made. We are mourning the loss of something that never truly existed, yet we still have the right to mourn

2. Perhaps the most frustrating part, is that “We The People” did not vote for Donald Trump. The majority of votes – the Popular Vote – went to Hillary Clinton. I voted for Hillary Clinton, but because the majority of the Electoral Colleges in my state, Georgia, voted for Trump, Trump received my vote.




The progress that we thought had been made over recent years sparked hope for a better tomorrow. My plan was to return home in 2 years after graduating from university to join the fight against systematic discrimination. It’s difficult, however, to imagine now that America, and even humanity, isn’t a lost cause.

We blindly recited the Pledge of Allegiance in school everyday. In its current state, I don’t see how I can pledge my allegiance to this flag any longer.

With great disbelief, and on the contrary to my rant, at the bottom of this wastebasket of my emotions, underneath the anger, the frustration, the fear, and the depression, lies a tiny shred of crumpled, wrinkled, yet unbridled hope. Maybe I’m just a na�ve 20 year old, but I still faintly feel the same hope that was sparked by the progress that we thought had been made. For, it is embedded deeper into our roots than racism, misogyny, xenophobia and prejudice ever can be. It might get buried like those other American roots had been, but it is always there. It may be hidden underneath the surface right now, but when it comes above ground, it has the power to shift mountains, as it always has. Before anything else, hope is all humanity ever had, and hope-fully we always will.

I hope that we can fight to create a flag that we are all proud to pledge our allegiance to, because this one’s just not working anymore. I hope we can. I don’t know if we can. I’m not even sure I still think we can. But, I hope we can. And that’s all we can do right now. And we’ll mourn. Because, it’s ok to mourn. And when we’re ready, we’ll fight to create that flag. But today, all we can do is be there for each other, hope, and remember that it’s ok to mourn.

To all the protest-voters, whether you voted for Trump, a 3rd-party candidate, or simply didn’t vote: Many of us minorities didn’t want to vote for Clinton, but we did because we couldn’t afford the alternative. I hope your protest vote was worth the suffering that is to come.

To my LGBT, African-American, Hispanic, and most-of-all to my female family and friends: I will never be able to understand the extent of how horrible this must feel for you to have this man as POTUS, but I truly empathize with you as much as I possibly can.

It is no doubt that we are ALL going to have a long four years, but as my Canadian high school, the Burnaby Central Wildcats, used to say: We’re all in this together.

Yasyf Mohamedali: Now What

Written By Yasyf Mohamedali, Computer Science & Engineering Student at MIT. Republished with permission. He can be found on Twitter @Yasyf.

Going to jump on the posting unsolicited thoughts bandwagon. There are a lot of people out there trivializing the danger of electing Trump, a man who targets and hates people based on their gender and religion, by making jokes about moving (back) to Canada, etc. I was one of them. Luckily, Aneesh and a couple other friends forced me to think about this in a more serious light. This feels like the end of the world, and making jokes is a great coping mechanism. But we have to approach this rigorously if we want to do it justice.Three points.

1. Supporting Trump is a dangerous, dangerous mistake.

I understand people have different political views. I’m not going to bash you for supporting Trump because of his policies. This is so much more fundamental than that. This is a man who advocates for rape, mass murder, and persecution of religious groups. It doesn’t matter where you stand politically, this is unacceptable. We can not and will not tolerate it.

2. It is our moral responsibility to stand up and fight this.

And I’m talking to my friends at home here too. Now is not the time to sit on our high horses and disapprovingly shake our heads because Justin Trudeau is our PM. Now is the time to show the world that Canadians stick up for their friends. Just like when the Americans stood up for us in our time of need [https://www.youtube.com/watch%3fv%3dtiegfaxfg_w&h=atogwjrmqoc4z80mhzldml17ximut0didmfwgwobaykmffwoaghovbjky2txtij08iq0_0ezmgpp89kzk-hdxvhmcnwqfnh9ap2fgzbfdcdxwxknhzp_ukbu0opjbjs7icnstho0sbjk&s=1_green] .American, Canadian, Mexican, male, female, straight, gay, whatever. It doesn’t matter. We’re so much more than our differences. We’re the generation that simultaneously took to the streets and swept the world’s largest communication channel to fight for things our parents wouldn’t dare to defend. Equal marriage rights. Black lives. Equal opportunities for women. When the biggest threat to all of this manages to take absolute control of the most powerful country in the world, we can’t point and laugh. And we sure as hell can’t run away. A lot of us are lucky enough to be in a position where we can have real influence in the world around us, even at this young age. Don’t waste that. Fight back. Help educate. Make sure that those around you who are most threatened by Trump and his bigoted followers know that you will not let them be persecuted. You will refuse to sit idly by if people attempt to discriminate or disadvantage them. Restore their faith in their communities.

3. There is a very legitimate reason to be afraid.

For me personally, the fear tactics and bigotry of this election hit very close to home. My mother left her birth country at gunpoint, forced to leave because of her religion and ethnicity. Her family gave up everything in the face of a violent, racist dictator who made them feel alien in their own country. She faced intense discrimination from every direction growing up, and her entire worldview was shaped by this childhood. Luckily, the outcome was an incredible set of values, a happy family, and an amazingly strong community in the most loving country in the world. Not everyone in her situation was as lucky. She raised me to appreciate how far they had come, but also to be constantly aware of the threat of being turned into an outsider in your own home, and having everything taken away from you. I’ve cherished this lesson from the first time I heard the story, but it’s never felt quite as real as it does right now. I’m not suggesting that Trump is a genocidal madman that is planning on wiping out all the Muslims in America, but the rhetoric and mentality is eerily similar.For a lot of us, it’s easy to lament the situation this election will put many people in, without fully being able to empathize with them. As privileged people, we’re a bit displaced from the thick of the discrimination, and we often have safety nets to protect us from many of Trump’s policies. We cannot let this cause us to become numb to the very real threat that now exists in this country, and the world at large. The next leader of the USA openly encourages objectifying and sexually harassing women. Do not use this as a way to become complacent of others doing the same. The next leader of the USA advocates for discriminating and harassing individuals because they greet each other with As Salaam Alaikum or start their meals with Bismillah. Do not embrace this with jokes and ignorance. The next leader of the USA is a warmonger who inspires violence domestically and abroad. Do not use this as an excuse for your own actions, or those of the people around you. Acknowledge that there are a lot of people who’s entire lives feel turned upside-down at this moment, and the best thing you can do for them is to resist everything Trump and his campaign stand for. Like Michelle Obama so perfectly articulated, “when they go low, we go high”. We have the power to take a worst nightmare and turn it into a source of inspiration for continuing to fight for what we believe in. Don’t let them take that away too.

If you are also interested in contributing to MuslimGuy.com, please email our Editor-in-Chief at alykhan@muslimguy.com

The combat of Islamophobia through CBCs Little Mosque on the Prairie: How does the medias portrayal of Islam need to change to contribute to the acceptance of Muslims in Western countries?

At a time when Islamophobia has reached a renewed peak, it is necessary to better understand Muslims to prevent targeted violence, misunderstanding, and to support peace and coexistence among all regardless of faith (or no faith) and background. I believe this could be tactfully achieved by returning to Canadian television sitcom Little Mosque on the Prairie, which aired from 2007 through 2012 on the CBC Television Network. Initially available only to Canadian viewers, Little Mosque on the Prairie was eventually broadcast in a total of 83 countries. The first episode of the series titled “Little Mosque”, in my opinion, started the paradigm shift in understanding of Muslim culture among Canadians addressing issues such as diversity through fashion and attitudes, associations with terrorism and traveling as a Muslim, daily misconceptions, conservative and liberal interpretations, and the role of women. Therefore, the series should be further examined as an ideal model for the United States given the current state of their political climate.

The first episode opens with an extremely diverse representation of Muslims entering the mosque in the fictitious town of Mercy, Saskatchewan. They are wearing traditional American, South Asian and Arab garments. The show successfully presents the various and diverse appearances of Muslim men and women in cultural garment, as well as women with the head cover and without, which opens a new perspective to the various ways Muslims dress. Later on, however, the episode continues with most men wearing caps and most women wearing head scarves, which in reality only some Muslim women wear, and is an inaccurate representation of Muslims in general, especially those living here in Canada. On the other hand, it does capture attention from an audience that might usually turn a blind-eye that can eventually lead to better more informed presentations of Muslims from the show. Coming from a family history of leaving one country for another because of persecution or even business and educational opportunities, my family has placed immense significance on adjusting to the ways and fashion of the people living in those countries in which we reside which differentiates my family from many other Muslims who have come straight to Canada from a single country. Even my great-grandfather right up to my father today never sported a beard, something highly linked to orthodox traditions of Islam. The head cover also has no place in my family. I believe it was my second great-grandmother who last wore hers for ceremonial purposes only. Today, my mom does not wear a head cover and never would. Similarly, I have never worn a traditional garment in my life and question what that may be given my English, Indian, East African and Iranian history. I have found often in my life people expect me to define myself: what I am, who I am, where I am from and I cannot do that personally and therefore people who cannot accept that seem shocked, surprised and upset but this is the result of the fact that I am the product of a multitude of different traditions and ethnicities. Ultimately, the writer of the show has been able to successfully explore various dimensions of fashion within the Muslim community especially through its multiethnic and highly cosmopolitan makeup.

This episode sought to connect the viewer, whether Muslim or non-Muslim, through satirizing attitudes towards everyday life including modern day pop culture. In the beginning, the acting Muslim religious preacher condemns wine-gums, liquorice, and rye-bread because of their suggestive nature towards alcohol (‘haram’ or forbidden). He discourages the show Desperate Housewives and some women in attendance are seen asking each other if they taped the last episode and their obvious interest in the show appears disregarding anything the conservative leader has to say before them introducing the concept of self-evaluation and discretion within the faith. Through criticizing simple items such as candy, bread and a television show, this episode takes a comedic intervention on the cultural baggage which can disrupt religious enrichment and understanding. In sum, the show has also approached diversity of cultural attitudes as part of religious interpretation in the Muslim community through this episode.

Following the series’ consideration of various topical issues, the episode addresses common associations of Islam with terrorism and violent extremism. In one scene during the same episode, a non-Muslim accidentally walks in on a congregation of Muslims praying, witnessing practices that are considerably different than those performed by Christians. Uninformed and out of fear, the individual immediately calls the “terrorist attack hotline” to report his “findings” not completely unpredictable given present day media disproportionately referencing the violent Taliban and Al-Qaeda groups as opposed to better and peaceful examples (Poole). The pastor, however, informs the concerned town member that Muslims are generally not fanatics and not to be paranoid a looming issue today (Elbih). This reflects the common trend of fearing what is unknown and portrays jumping to conclusions society makes all the time regarding minority groups and peoples – including by a certain Donald Trump. The story line of this episode involves a Parish that is rented out to a Muslim community to provide them a space for prayer. By addressing associations of Islam with terrorism, the series does not ignore obvious issues present today and historically immediately after 9/11.

As the first episode progresses, further examination towards the experiences of Muslim travelers is opened up. The very first episode introduces a new religious preacher – or Imam – for the Muslim community based in the small town Prairie community where the series is set. As the new leader, originally from Toronto, checks in for his flight, he is seen speaking with his mother over the phone and over the course of his discussion just as he approaches the counter, police officials take him aside and take away his bag. This segment of the episode introduces trouble at the airport and is something many Muslims and individuals with Middle Eastern influenced names experience. A journalist later upon his arrival in the Prairie town of Mercy questions the new religious leader, Amaar, if he is from Saudi Arabia to which he responds “No, I’m from Toronto!” The comedic spin of the episode and even the entire series slowly eliminates Islamophobia and misunderstanding tackling several issues each episode to break down barriers experienced by this highly misunderstood people. After dealing with hatred from non-Muslims upon his arrival into “Mercy”, Amaar decides to return to Toronto and when booking his flight back is told to hold while a supervisor assists the booking to which Amaar responds “Can’t a Muslim book a one-way flight these days without someone having to call their supervisor?” Strikingly, to myself at least, I have had a similar situation when it comes to online check-in for flights – I simply cannot and must go to the airport counter. As a twelve year old boy flying to Houston, Texas I even recall unable to check-in at the airport and a supervisor having to be called by the front desk agent (after a red flash on the screen) and eventually having to provide more information about myself before being permitted to move into the boarding area. My humiliating experience is just one of the many that Muslims go through even forcing some (like my dad even though a Canadian citizen) to avoid traveling altogether (especially to the United States!). Altogether, the events in this episode highlight the many adversities Muslims experience while traveling.

As a result of misinformation, numerous misconceptions that are not deduced also surface in this episode. During a radio segment with the concerned town member being interviewed during this episode, the radio host mentions that Muslims hate freedom and democracy – a common misconception in Britain (Versi)– but when Amaar, the local Muslim religious leader is invited to the show he does not address these topics during the interview rather unimpressed. It seems as if the idea is incomplete and should have been addressed as Muslims in countries with political unrest having been working very hard for these two things and have not been listened to, only ignored. This scene further questions journalistic integrity and responsibility to provide the truth which the interviewer did not practice and confirms the need for “special training for journalists working in areas touching on Islamic faith and culture, and guidelines for sensitive topics” to avoid the conflation of Islam with criminality as a result of religious illiteracy (Versi). Later on, a scene evolves between the Mayor of the town and her public relations officer, Sarah, a Muslim convert married to an active Muslim member of the town involved with the organization of the Muslim prayer hall currently rented from the Parish. The mayor tells Sarah to call the police for help but Sarah responds that she does not need help as her husband is not a terrorist and that it is ridiculous idea as a result of sensationalism and scaremongering. The mayor immediately apologizes dismissing her suggestions. By dismissing assertions immediately for those with no voice or representation, those who do not understand them can be open to new ways of thinking supported by mature and logical reasoning.

As new issues emerge, differences between conservative and liberal interpretations within the faith are taken into account. This is obvious later on in the episode when the congregation is concerned with when Ramadan (the Muslim month of fasting) should begin as the Islamic calendar is based on the moon and does not fall perfectly in the Gregorian calendar we use today. This episode shows Muslims arguing when to begin fasting for the period of Ramadan and one person uses a telescope to observe the moon while another proposes going onto a particular website as a reference representing how conservative traditionalists and modern liberals disagree regularly on various issues. This scene portrays Islam as a rigid fixed faith with only one way to do things otherwise it is wrong – this is not actually true. In reality, different denominations and communities may start Ramadan on different dates (usually around the same time) but still spend the same amount of time around the same time of the year fasting. This episode further introduces the Muslim season of Ramadan with two women of different cultural backgrounds bickering about what food will be present to end the day’s fast (over a meal called ‘Iftar’). However, the show does not mention that fasting by way of not eating is not a requirement and is entirely a choice. It also does not introduce the idea that to many Muslims Ramadan also holds other special observances such as abstaining from harmful activities and the performance of good deeds, charitable giving and voluntary service to ultimately reinforce the spiritual and moral character of the person which are a major component of Islam (Espiritu). The show concludes with Christians and Muslims together sharing a Ramadan meal with both traditional options (goat) and non-traditional options (cucumber sandwiches). As can be seen above, Muslims and their ways of life can be highly differentiable and further shaped through their own conservative or liberal approaches to the religion.

The series also embarks upon gender equality, in particular through the significance of women in Muslim communities. This is a ground breaking change in western programming which is not so clear in other common media representations as identified in CSI and Criminal Minds (MediaSmarts) of Muslim women which frequently show them as faceless, dark, and hidden “neglecting to consider the diversity of female Muslim experiences” (MediaSmarts). In this episode it is obvious when Rayyan (an Islamic feminist and trained medical doctor) tells Amaar that he was the guy she had hoped would bring a progressive mind to the religious position given the fact he was born and raised in Canada like myself and I do agree. She says “I thought you’d drag us into the modern world” and in many ways I have done the same with my own family – African immigrants of Asian descent. When I speak with Muslims who have come from other countries to Canada recently, tensions which stem from political distress and cultural attitudes become clear. By giving Muslim women significant representation and taking on positions of civic engagement, the show has ultimately opened doors toward the understanding of another people and a way forward in Muslim women’s development.

In the final analysis, Islam is conceived in the West through the violence committed by adjacent minorities instead of through the peaceful and good nature held by the vast majority of its adherents. Little Mosque on the Prairie was a breakthrough for Muslim representation in the media and has played a significant role is dispelling stereotypes addressing issues including diversity through fashion and attitudes, associations with terrorism and traveling as a Muslim, daily misconceptions, conservative and liberal interpretations of the faith, and the role of women. Especially when media portray other religions and cultures negatively with misinformation, exaggeration, propaganda and error through compromised “journalistic truth” (Khan) it becomes challenging to understand these other faiths and lifestyles. While some conservative Muslims from various cultures may not agree with all of the series’ messages conveyed and some non-Muslims may remain in fear of the highly diverse Muslim culture, the show has created a better interfaith and intercultural understanding for people in Canada and should be aired in United States to change perceptions of Muslims there that could result in major policy changes to the ones recently enforced through President Trump’s executive orders. Supporting this theory, through better representations of Islam in Canadian media over the last decade less prejudice in younger children towards Muslims was correspondingly identified (MediaSmarts). For American youth, I think through receiving the show well and having a better understanding into a greatly ostracized group of people, hopefully meaningful change will result and Islamophobia will decline.


Elbih, Randa. “Teaching about Islam and Muslims While Countering Cultural Misrepresentations.” Social Studies, vol. 106, no. 3, 01 Jan. 2015, pp. 112-116. EBSCOhost, ezproxy.capilanou.ca/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1059309&site=eds-live.

Espiritu, Belinda. “Islamophobia and the ‘Negative Media Portrayal of Muslims’.” Global Research, 29 Feb. 2016, http://www.globalresearch.ca/islamophobia-and-the-negative-media-portrayal-of-muslims/5440451.

Khan, Ahmed. “The Media Owes Us The Truth About Islam.” Huffington Post, 8 Apr. 2017, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ahmed-khan/the-media-owes-us-the-truth-about-islam_b_9628280.html.

“Media Portrayals of Religion: Islam.” MediaSmarts, http://mediasmarts.ca/diversity- media/religion/media-portrayals-religion-islam. Accessed 20 May 2017. Poole, Elizabeth. “How is Islam represented on the BBC.” openDemocracy, 15 Mar. 2016, https://www.opendemocracy.net/ourbeeb/elizabeth-poole/how-is-islam-represented-on-bbc.

Versi, Miqdaad. “Why the British media is responsible for the rise in Islamophobia in Britain.” The Independent, 4 Apr. 2016, http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/why-the-british-media-is-responsible-for-the-rise-in-islamophobia-in-britain-a6967546.html.